Educational Trips to Explore the Art and Science of Paris

As the largest city and capital of France, Paris is just a short hop away from the United Kingdom and makes for an exceptional place to go on educational trips for a taste of the art and science that makes the city what it is today. With a history that dates back over two thousand years, exploring Paris and its surrounds can seem to be a monumental task for educational trips to the city, but it is easy to manage the wealth of information and culture if you focus on a few key sights or topics.
While in Paris, it is hard to ignore the arts. World famous museums, such as the Louvre, are around every corner, but if you have a little time and want to get a more in depth look into a museum, consider a visit to the Musée d'Orsay. Don't neglect the sciences, either, which have a background that can be explored when you visit the Cité des Sciences.
The Musée d'Orsay
Situated on the left bank of the Seine, the Musée d'Orsay literally cannot be missed. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, which is a stunning Beaux-Arts train station that was built between 1989 and 1900. The building itself was completed just in time for the Universal Exposition of 1900 and the station remained one of the most important stations in France until 1939 when the short platforms became an issue for the longer trains. During the 1900s, the station was used as a film location, by auctioneers, and as a theatre company before the building was saved from destruction and opened as a museum in 1986. Educational trips here will reveal its history and heritage: it was designed to bridge a perceived gap between the collections of the Louvre and the National Museum of Modern Art. The resulting museum is light and airy and known for its extensive collection of impressionist and post-impressionist works of art with names that everyone will recognise - such as Monet, Degas, Manet, and Van Gogh, just to mention a few.
Cité des Sciences
Officially known as the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, this museum is must-visit destination for science focused educational trips to Paris. Located in the outskirts, the Cité des Sciences is also the largest science museum in Europe. The museum opened in 1986, and is recognisable for its large bioclimatic façade of glass. Inside the museum features a planetarium, IMAX theatre, a submarine and a range of leisure activities that combine the history of science and modern scientific issues with entertainment and activities. Here students focused on maths, space, environmental issues and even the human body can enjoy the exhibits before heading out to explore the parklands around the building.
Angela Bowden works for EST (Equity School Travel), the UK's largest educational travel company, providing educational trips for secondary schools, primary schools and colleges. Educational trips with EST can encompass a wide range of learning and more in worldwide destinations.

Science in the Dark Ages

The period of history known as THE DARK AGES spans from 475 AD (fall of the Roman Empire) to 1200 AD when Universities started forming.
During this time, material conditions deteriorated so much that people had to concentrate all their efforts on daily survival and science became stagnant.
However, there are 2 common misunderstandings related to this period:
1. Everybody thought again that the Earth was flat or had the shape of a chest, and knowledge of a spherical Earth was lost completely, only to be recovered when Columbus discovered America. But this is not true. The idea of a round Earth was never lost among scholars and among the cult circles, small as they became in the darkest of the dark ages.
2. Science and scientists were persecuted by law. This is also untrue. The claim has to do with the Theodosian and Justinian code, from 400 and 500 AD respectively. But the articles in these "codexes" or laws banished superstition and divination, activities which were known at the time by the Latin name "MATHEMATICA", because of the complicated calculations astrologers had to make in order to get their horoscopes.
On the other hand, the social situation had deteriorated to such an extent that Roman Empire ruling class had a strong will to get rid of threats of war from outside by the barbarians, but also from division in the inside because of the abundant heresies (Nestorians, Arians, Priscillians... ). This situation caused pagan science to suffer consequences similar to persecution: academies and schools were closed, scholars were banished, informers thrived; but there was never a formally written law against science.
Science during the dark ages was stagnant: annotators, commentators, translators, no advance. Preserving and transmitting knowledge in monasteries and a few reduced circles. Material conditions didn't allow for more.
Ignorance extended widely among society, especially the popular classes, but it doesn't follow from that, that everybody thought the Earth was flat again.
Science wasn't persecuted by law, but material conditions and human weaknesses created an atmosphere that crushed pagan science.
Initial rejection of pagan science for the reasons explained, turned later into acceptance by the very church fathers, from Augustine of Hippo (354-430AD) who concentrated in resolving contradiction conflicts with scripture in a process that lasted until the end of the period, when Aristotle (V century BC) was finally admitted into Christian lore, thanks to the works of Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) and Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274).

Russian Scientists Begin Study of Mammoth Remains

"Mammoth of the Century" in Moscow for Study

The fossilised remains of a teenage Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) has begun to be examined by Moscow-based scientists after it was transported from the remote Siberian location where the fossilised carcase was discovered. The late Summer months of August and early September are when a number of Woolly Mammoth and other Ice Age fossils are found in the northernmost parts of Russia. The spring and summer rains coupled with the seasonally high temperatures permit parts of the permafrost to be thawed out or washed away by the erosion of river banks and this can expose the preserved remains of a number of long-dead prehistoric animals.

Some of the Woolly Mammoths have soft tissue preserved and with the publishing of the recent, controversial research into the half-life of DNA, talk inevitably turns to the possibility of obtaining genetic material from these extinct animals with the long-term aim of producing clones and resurrecting a species.

The Mammuthus genus (Mammoths) were members of the Elephantidae sub-family, taxonomically classified with extant elephants. They were highly successful herbivores that lived across northern latitudes (Asia, Europe and North America) as well as Africa. A number of species have been identified including the famous Woolly Mammoth (M. primigenius) and the larger species, associated with milder climates the Columbian Mammoth (M. columbi).

Northern Siberian Discovery

The latest Woolly Mammoth fossil to emerge from the permafrost of northern Siberia was found by a young boy called Yevgeny Salinder, whilst he was walking along the banks of the Yenisei river about six weeks ago. Mammoth fossils including tusks had been found in this area before, but it was not the sight of an over-sized, curved tusk that indicated to Yevgeny that he had found the remains of a Woolly Mammoth, but rather the smell the carcase gave off. As the long-dead animal's corpse is exposed to the air with the erosion of the matrix in which the fossil was buried, so the flesh begins to decompose once again. It was the smell of putrefying flesh that alerted eleven-year old Yevgeny that a Mammoth's body was lying nearby.

Exposed Hine Quarters of Ice Age Beast

The back quarters and the legs were the parts of the carcase first exposed, local officials were contacted and the International Mammoth Committee alerted so that an excavation could begin to remove the Woolly Mammoth. Scientists rushed out to the remote location and began the work of digging out the Mammoth remains. Alexei Tikhonov, of the St. Petersburg-based Zoological Museum, and an expert of Siberian Mammoths was one of the scientists dispatched to excavate the carcase. He has described this particular specimen as the best preserved and most complete Mammoth found in Russia for more than 100 years.

"Mammoth Discovery of the Century"

Nicknamed the "Mammoth of the Century", the specimen is that of a teenage Woolly Mammoth, a male that died around 30,000 years ago. Although the elephant's trunk has rotted away, scientists have found samples of fur intact and one 1.5 metre long tusk, along with the remains of an eye and a small, Mammoth ear. Mammoths had much smaller ear flaps than their modern elephant counterparts. Small ears would not have lost as much heat as a large ear flap and there was no need for large ears to help cool the animal down, temperatures in this part of the world during the Pleistocene Epoch when this animal lived, would have rarely climbed into double figures (Celsius).

Excavation Begins

With the aid of local volunteers the Mammoth fossil was carefully excavated out of its Siberian grave, the process taking more than a week to complete. Once the remains had been stabilised (kept at a constant, low temperature to preserve soft tissue), the fossil has been transported back to Moscow for detailed study. Parts of the specimen will also be examined by Russian palaeontologists in St. Petersburg.

Weighing over 1,000 kilogrammes; the carefully packed and preserved ancient elephant may provide researchers with Mammoth DNA. Viable genetic material could still be preserved deep in the large teeth of the animal or within the larger limb bones such as the femur. With a team of international scientists recently concluding that DNA might be able to survive for much longer than previously thought in the fossil record (based on evidence from New Zealand Moa fossils), there is a strong possibility that this 30,000 year old carcase might yield genetic material.

Russian scientists are keen to start work, although they will have to be properly protected and wear face masks to ensure exposure to ancient bacteria and other pathogens does not occur. The skeleton is virtually intact and the body cavity has not been punctured which may have permitted the gut and the other internal organs such as the heart to be preserved in tact.

Named after the Boy who Found the Fossil

Like many Woolly Mammoth fossil finds, this teenage Mammoth that was probably around sixteen years of age when it died, has been given a name as well as a formal scientific classification code. The Mammoth has been named Zhenya, a pet name used by the friends and family of Yevgeny, the boy who sniffed out the fossil discovery in the first place.

Everything Dinosaur is a company run by parents, teachers and real Mammoth experts. It specialises in developing educational dinosaur toys, models, clothing and games and strives to help young people learn more about science through their fascination with prehistoric animals. Many of the items featured on the Everything Dinosaur website Everything Dinosaur have been designed and tested by the teachers and real dinosaur experts in the company.

Our aim is to help young people learn more about Earth sciences through their fascination with dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. With something like 900 products on line including dinosaur party supplies, Everything Dinosaur has built up a strong reputation assisting parents, guardians and fellow teachers, helping young people to learn more about science through creative play.

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Scientists Discover "Log Jam" of Dinosaur Bones in the Morrison Formation

Scientists Discover New Fossil Site

An expedition hoping to find specimens for a Chicago museum have hit the jackpot with the discovery of a vast number of jumbled up dinosaur bones in an ancient river system outside of Hanksville, Utah in the western United States of America.

The researchers, representing the Burpee Museum of Natural History, had been hoping to find specimens for the museum's new display centre which is currently under construction. This new discovery will give them plenty of options, as so far, six types of dinosaur have been identified along with a number of other important finds that provide a detailed picture of the western North American landscape in the late Jurassic.

A "Log Jam" of Fossilised Bones

It seems the team have uncovered a "log jam", a series of fossils that represent the aftermath of a single flood event (or perhaps numerous floods), with drowned animals being washed down stream and ending up in part of a river system with more flood debris including trees and other plant material. The site is then gradually covered over with sediments and preserved as fossils, providing a remarkable insight into the fauna and flora of this part of the world approximately 148 million years ago.

Providing Palaeontologists with Plenty of Data

These "log jams" can provide palaeontologists with a tremendous amount of information about a particular ecosystem, as a vast amount of fossil material is uncovered. This new site includes numerous dinosaur remains, some of the bones are articulated but the majority are scattered and jumbled up. Amongst the fossil bones are the fossilised remains of conifers, so well-preserved that the texture of the bark can still be made out along with growth rings on the broken branches and trunks. These pieces probably created a natural dam which enabled the collection of all the carcases of animals caught in the floods to be washed up together in the same area. Dendrochronologists (scientists who study the growth rings of timber), should be able to obtain climate data from the fossilised wood. Wide growth rings followed by narrow growth rings would indicate distinct seasons, such as a wet season with rapid growth followed by a dry season with limited tree growth. This site could help provide further information on life in the late Jurassic (Tithonian faunal stage).

A Glimpse into an Ancient American Landscape

These log jam sites are very important to palaeontologists, because of the wealth of data they contain, although such finds are rare, when they do occur they permit scientists a unique access to ancient worlds.

Similar discoveries have been made recently elsewhere in the world, most notably Argentina where a number of new Cretaceous dinosaur fossils have recently been excavated.

Within a National Monument

This new quarry is within the Dinosaur National Monument Park, an area protected by the U.S. National Parks Service, an area that is one of the most important sites in the world for dinosaur fossils. The National Monument site was established in 1915 by Presidential decree, and much of what we know about dinosaurs such as Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Allosaurus, Camptosaurus and Dryosaurus is due to fossil discoveries made in this area.

This part of Utah was first recognised as being scientifically important in 1909, when an almost complete Apatosaurus skeleton was discovered by an expedition from the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). Between 1909 and 1923 the site was continually excavated and approximately 350 tonnes of fossil bones were removed, providing the backbone (no pun intended), of most of the world's Jurassic dinosaur fossil collections.

Commenting on the discovery, palaeontologists have stated that they are very excited at the prospect of exploring the site further and perhaps being able to discover some dinosaur fossils that are new to science and indicate a new species.

A Chance to Study Sauropods (Long-necked Dinosaurs)

For the research team, this discovery will give then an opportunity to study more Sauropod fossils including Apatosaurus, Diplodocus (Diplodocids) and the more heavily built Macronaria, a clade of Sauropods that includes the Brachiosaurids and Camarasaurids. The name Macronaria, literally means "big nostrils", a reference to the distinctive box-like skulls of these huge dinosaurs, where the naris (hole in the skull for the nostrils) is bigger than the orbits (the hole in the skull for the eyeballs). It is thought that these large nostrils were filled with moist membranes that would have cooled the brain as these animals wandered around the hot Jurassic landscape.

The area of land around the town of Hanksville has been known as a source of fossils to locals and land managers for years, but it was only in the last few weeks that its potential impact to science became apparent. Amateur fossil hunters had picked over the site but no extensive excavations had taken place thus leaving those fossils below ground in pristine condition. The Bureau of Land Management intends to close the site to the public to permit a proper scientific excavation to take place.

Stegosaurus and Allosaurus

It is hoped that the Burpee group will provide more information on some already well-known dinosaurs such as the meat-eater Allosaurus, plus the herbivores Stegosaurus and Camptosaurus. Elements of a Brachiosaurid type fossil have already been recovered by the scientists assisted by local volunteers. Despite being a very well-known dinosaur, remains of these animals in the Morrison Formation are very rare. The only virtually complete skeleton of a Brachiosaurus was found in Tanzania, it is on display at the Humboldt Museum of Berlin. This animal has been reclassified as a different type of Brachiosaur by some scientists and re-named Giraffatitan, although this re-working of the evidence has yet to gain universal approval and most palaeontologists refer to the Humboldt specimen as a Brachiosaurus. Perhaps the Brachiosaur remains at the Hanksville site will give scientists a rare opportunity to compare the African and North America types of Brachiosaur.

The Most Important Morrison Formation

The fossil area is approximately half a mile in diameter and probably represents a sandbar deposit upon which all these organic remains came to rest. Whether this marks a single flood event or a gradual build up of debris in one area over a number of years has yet to be determined. One thing is for sure, this new site will help cement the Morrison Formation as one of the most important Mesozoic sites of all and provide fresh insight into well-known dinosaurs, but relatively poorly researched animals such as the North American Brachiosaurids.

It is sometimes difficult for the public to appreciate how little is still known about famous dinosaurs such as Diplodocus and Brachiosaurus for example. Although scientific techniques have improved and new fossils found, there is still so much more to learn about these amazing creatures. A point that is all too often overlooked when the likes of "Walking with Dinosaurs" a ground breaking BBC TV documentary series featured the animals of the Morrison Formation in episode two of the series -"Time of the Titans".

Everything Dinosaur is a company run by parents, teachers and real dinosaur experts. It specialises in developing educational dinosaur toys, models, clothing and games and strives to help young people learn more about science through their fascination with prehistoric animals. Many of the items featured on the Everything Dinosaur website have been designed and tested by the teachers and real dinosaur experts in the company.

To learn more about the products and services we offer at Everything Dinosaur click on our website links.

Our aim is to help young people learn more about Earth sciences through their fascination with dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals. Team members are happy to provide advice and support supplying free quizzes, drawing materials, puzzles, games even recipes for dinosaur themed biscuits and birthday cakes. With something like 600 products on line including dinosaur party supplies, Everything Dinosaur has built up a strong reputation assisting parents, guardians and fellow teachers, helping young people to learn more about science through creative play.

Japanese Scientists Identify Dinosaur Skin Impression

Hadrosaur Skin with Fine Scales or Is it a Dinosaur Fossil at All?
The country of Japan is not well-known for its dinosaur fossils. Situated on the notorious "ring of fire" in the Pacific, the islands that make up Japan are subjected to considerable seismic forces. However, a number of important dinosaur discoveries have been made by geologists and palaeontologists as they study sedimentary rocks laid down in the Mesozoic Era. Isolated teeth representing a yet unknown genus of large Theropod (meat-eating) dinosaur have been found in Hakusan, Ishikawa Prefecture on the northern coast of Japan's main island. The teeth have been dated to the Early Cretaceous and they suggest that if there were apex predators living in the area that was to form the islands of Japan then there would have been a substantial and thriving dinosaur-based eco-system with many more types of plant-eating dinosaur for the large carnivores to prey upon. Fossils of giant plant-eating dinosaurs known as Sauropods have also been found, most notably a fragmentary fossil of a leg bone from a huge, long-necked dinosaur. Representatives from the Palaeontological Society of Japan reported on the finding of a huge Sauropod femur (the thigh bone of a Sauropod). This single fossil represents the largest type of dinosaur found in the country to date.
Fossilised Skin Impression Discovered
Japanese scientists have just published the description of a remarkably well-preserved fossil which shows the imprint of a dinosaur's skin. The fossil measures a little under twenty centimetres in length and eleven centimetres wide at its widest part. Although the discovery of a dinosaur skin impression has yet to be confirmed, if the find is validated then this is only the second time that an impression of a dinosaur's skin has been found in the country.
The fossil was found in 2001 by an amateur fossil hunter, exploring a series of ninety-eight million year old, fine sandstone deposits in Amakusa, Kumamato Prefecture. It actually consists of two pieces, as the fossil had been broken up as a result of weathering at the site. The first section the forms the top, right portion of the fossil was found and then a few months later the second part of the fossil, representing the larger, lower portion of the fossil material was found.
Ancient Geology of Japan
For much of the Mesozoic Era the series of islands that make up the country we now know as Japan lay underwater, however, what land that remained above sea level was part of the eastern coast of Laurasia, a huge, super-continental land mass that covered much of the northern hemisphere since its formation in the Ordovician geological period. It was only during the Tertiary period that the string of volcanoes that make up the Japanese islands was pushed away from the Asian mainland; eastward by tectonic plate movements. Since their formation, the Japanese islands have been moved back and forth from the Asian mainland as the landmass is pushed and pulled by the plate movements.
Showing Fine Detail of a Reptile's Skin
The skin impression shows fine detail. The impression of individual, polygonal shaped scales can be clearly seen. The scales are approximately two millimetres in diameter. Palaeontologists have speculated that since the fine strata in which the fossil was found represents a tidal flat deposit, a dinosaur may have rested on the tidal flats and left a skin impression which was eventually fossilised.
Could this Be the Skin of a Hadrosaur?
It is not known what sort of dinosaur may have left this skin impression. Experts at the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum have examined the fossil skin imprint and they have suggested that this impression may have been made by a Hadrosaur (duck-billed dinosaur) or the skin impression may not represent dinosaur fossil material at all. A number of duck-billed dinosaur fossils have been found in Japan and palaeontologist know from fossils found elsewhere in Asia from rocks of the same age that Hadrosaurs were abundant. It is possible the fossil could represent evidence of a duck-billed dinosaur resting on a sandbank, however, it is perhaps more likely that this is the skin impression left behind by another reptile, not a dinosaur at all.
Crocodile Theory
Crocodiles are often seen today basking on sand banks. During the Cretaceous there were many crocodile-like creatures that probably had similar habits. Palaeontologists have proposed that it is more likely that the skin impression was made by a member of the Choristodera such as a Champsosaur.
Whether the fossil represents dinosaur material or not, it is the best preserved skin impression yet found in Japanese Cretaceous strata. The Chief Researcher at the Fukui Dinosaur Museum has heralded the find as significant stating that this is the first fossil in Japan that shows reptilian scales clearly.
It is likely that once the examination has been completed the specimen will be put on display in a museum close to where the two fossil pieces were actually discovered.
Everything Dinosaur is a company run by parents and teachers. It specialises in developing educational dinosaur toys, models, clothing and games and strives to help young people learn more about science through their fascination with prehistoric animals. Many of the items featured on the Everything Dinosaur website have been designed and tested by teachers and real dinosaur experts.
To learn more about the products and services we offer at Everything Dinosaur click on our website links.
Our aim is to help young people learn more about Earth sciences through their fascination with dinosaurs. With something like 900 products on line including dinosaur party supplies, Everything Dinosaur has built up a strong reputation assisting parents, guardians and fellow teachers.

Behavior of Materials in Tension

 Understanding the behavior of materials when loaded is a vital part of creating safe and reliable structures. Of the various stresses a given structural element may be subjected to, tensile stress is perhaps the most concerning. - Not that materials are necessarily always that much stronger in compression and shear, given an equal force per unit area.

It doesn't take a genius to see that beams are weaker to bending than columns are to buckling. This is due to the direction and position of the primary loads and not because of the material's tensile properties. This becomes apparent when both the beams and columns are of the same material, length, and cross section, yet the beams will exhibit major deflection long before the column comes even near buckling.

Due to this phenomenon, a beam must be carefully designed, with its second moment of area and material make-up ultimately deciding its resistance to deformation and failure. Rather than only tension, a horizontal structural member will more likely experience both tension on the upper face, and compression on the lower face, as it bends downward when loaded.

Stress-Strain Curve

Generally speaking, there are two kinds of material-types, ductile and brittle. By using a stress-strain curve one can graph the behavior of these materials starting from its original state to its point of rupture. Ductile materials will exhibit both an engineering or apparent stress-strain curve as well as a 'true' or actual stress-strain curve.

The difference is that the engineering curve bases its stress on the initial cross section of the material in question, whereas the true curve takes instantaneous ratios as the cross sectional area decreases due to Poisson's contractions. So with the engineering curve, the stress decreases with the decrease in cross section, whereas stress in the true curve will continue to rise.

Under normal test conditions, the true stress-strain curve is difficult to determine without continually monitoring the cross section. This is why the engineering curve is commonly used to make quick analysis of materials, even though the true curve is a better representation. As long as you don't get the two mixed up, they both have their individual pros and cons.

Strain-hardening and Necking

Ductile materials also exhibit a phenomenon called strain-hardening or work-hardening when its yield point has been crossed and it enters plastic deformation. As the stress increases due to the strain-hardening, it will eventually reach its ultimate strength, at which point it will begin necking.

Necking is when the material's cross section begins decreasing rapidly in a localized point, as opposed to a uniform decrease across the entire member. Once a member begins necking, rupture will soon follow. Necking is strictly a property of ductile materials, as opposed to brittle materials which will fracture before displaying any major cross-sectional reduction.

Brittle materials do not exhibit the discrepancy between true stress-strain and engineering stress-strain, as they neither have a yield point nor strain-harden. What this means is that the stress-strain curve of brittle materials will be linear, and extend in a linear fashion right up to their point of rupture. There is no yield point where the stress decreases, and no necking after ultimate strength.

Testing A Scientific Hypothesis

It is fair to say that scientists are like detectives. They piece together clues to learn about a process or event. One of the ways scientists collect evidence or clues is by conducting experiments. Experiments test an idea or hypothesis. Although all experiments do not follow the same step-by-step instructions, many do follow a similar investigation procedure.

Experiments begin by posing a question. A scientific question is one that can be answered by gathering evidence. For example, the question, "Which freezes faster - fresh water or salt water?" is scientific question because it can be answered by carrying out an investigation and gathering information.

The next step is to develop a hypothesis. This is a prediction about an experiment outcome. A hypothesis is a type of prediction, meaning it is formulated using observations and previous knowledge and experience. However, a hypothesis differs from a prediction in that it must be testable to prove or disprove fact. A properly worded hypothesis should take the form of an "if...then" statement. For example, "If I add salt to fresh water, then the water will take longer to freeze." Hypothesis statements can be used as a rough outline for conducting an experiment.

Next, the scientist must design an experiment in order to test his or her hypothesis. The plan should be written out in a step-by-step procedure and should describe the details of the observations and measurements. When designing the experiment, there are two important steps that must be included: controlling variables and forming operational definitions.

A variable is any factor that can change in an experiment. A single variable that can be changed throughout the experiment is called the manipulated variable. Using the example above, the manipulated variable is the amount of salt added to the water. The responding variable is what you measure or observe to obtain your results. Using the same experiment, "how long the water takes to freeze" is the responding variable.

The other component of a well-designed experiment is having clear operational definitions. An operational definition is a statement that describes how a particular variable is to be measured or how a term is to be defined. How will you determine if the water has frozen? Insert a stick in each container. What is the definition of "frozen" in relation to the experiment? This is the time at which the stick can't move anymore.

The observations and measurements made in an experiment are called data. At the end of each experiment, data should be analyzed for patterns and trends. Patterns are better revealed when they are classified in tables or graphs. They can then help the scientist answer questions like: Did they support the hypothesis? Do they reveal flaws in the experiment? Is more data needed?

After a thorough analysis, a conclusion must be made to sum up the investigation. When drawing a conclusion, the scientist needs to decide whether the data collected supports his or her hypothesis. Sometimes, it takes several experiments before a definitive conclusion can be made. Often, conclusions lead to posing new scientific questions and planning different experiments, while using the same investigation procedure to test a new hypothesis. If doing experiments seems like an exciting activity, you may want to earn a degree in science! You can pursue this fascinating field by way of an online education.

Archimedes' Law of Floatation Explained

Students with an affinity for Physics always have a quest for gaining knowledge about the mysteries of this world. Have you wondered how a vast ship sails calmly on the sea? Or, how a hot air balloon happens to go up in the air? Unfortunately, students cannot get all their questions answered in a classroom setting as there are several studentr seeking the attention of teachers. In such a case, you must consider hiring a private Physics tutor who will not only clear all your doubts but also explain the concepts further with the help of illustrations. In this article, we will discuss about the Archimedes law of floatation wherein the lies the answer to the above questions.

It is known that Archimedes was one of the best mathematicians of his time. He was also a physicist and an inventor. He was Greek by birth and there are several amazing inventions to his credit. He is known for the famous principle of floatation and the screw propeller. His works in the field of math includes discovering infinitesimals, formulas for measuring a circle, spheres, parabolas, cylinders and cones. The principle of floatation remains of his most recognized and popular inventions till date.

You will find it fascinating to know that Archimedes devised with most of his inventions to help his nation during the time of war. However, this principle was invented when a king asked him to verify the purity of a golden crown without harming it in any way. After days of pondering over it, the great scientist came up with an amazing solution and he took to the streets shouting 'eureka, eureka' in joy. The answer that he found was that he can find the density of the crown by measuring the volume of water that the crown displaced when immersed in a tub.

Thus, the Archimedes' law of floatation states that an object, whether wholly or partially submerged in liquid, experiences an upward thrust and the force is equal to the volume of the liquid displaced by the object. It is interesting to note that for any object that is completely submerged in liquid, the amount of fluid displaced is equal to its volume. And for an object that floats on a liquid surface, the volume of the displaced fluid is same as that of the object. This object experiences an upward force known as the buoyant force. If you wish to know more about the various inventions by Archimedes then hire a private physics tutor today.

Scientific Research Principles

Scientific research methods principally refer to a body of modus operandi used for investigating phenomena, thus acquiring new knowledge in the process. It also involves correcting and integrating previous known information to new heights.

Basis of a research

In order for a research to be considered as scientific, it must be based on certain accepted principles. Some of these are:

    The data collection must be through experimentation and observances.

    Information gathered must be measurable, observable and empirical.

    The evidence sought must be subject to precise principles of interpreting data.

    Steps followed are required to be repeatable in order to facilitate prediction of the upcoming results.

    The process must be out to prove a given hypothesis.

    Interpretation of results must never be biased.

    The evidence and results generated must be precisely documented for future usage by others. This involves writing of thesis and dissertations. The reason for this is to give future scientists an opportunity to have a look at your work, then attempt to improve or reproduce it and in so doing, verifying the results.

Conventional scheme of carrying out a research

At the end of a research, the scientist is projected to have formulated a hypothesis, analyzed and tested the findings, and lastly to have documented the final results. Nevertheless, the following points lead us to a pragmatic and widely accepted technique of carrying out a scientific research as shown below:

    Definition of the underlying question: The question is the subject of inquiry and is required to be well delineated in terms of the relevance, project cost, scope, time frame and availability of the needed resources.

    The information and resources required prior to the commencement of the project must be gathered in advance in order to avoid stalling the given project before its conclusion.

    Forming the hypothesis upon which the experimental processes involved in the research will be based on.

    The scientific data must be analyzed by the use appropriate techniques, for instance, the usage of tabulations, graphs and statistical software packages such as Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).

    Making the results accessible by publishing it in appropriate journals for future usage and reference.

    Lastly, retesting the results by other scientists to prove the authenticity of your work.

All in all, it is worthy to note that limitations when conducting a scientific research do exist and must be taken into considerations, and that it is virtually impossible to record everything that took place during the experimentation process comprehensively.

Tom Mc Carrick hosts Scientific Knowledge, a website where you can find out more on topics such as scientific research [] and much more.

Linear Motion System

Linear motion is the most basic of all motions. Objects that are not subjected to external forces will progress uniformly in a straight line permanently. Linear Motion is the movement along a line or length of area. Linear motion can be uniform at a constant speed, or non-uniform with fluctuating velocities (non-zero acceleration). The motion of an object along a line can be described by its position (x), which differs with the amount of time (t). Linear motion is sometimes called rectilinear motion.


A cam follower system is a system/mechanism that uses a cam and follower to create a specific motion. The cam is in most cases merely a flat piece of metal that has a shape or profile machined onto it. This cam is attached to a shaft which enables it to be turned by applying a turning action to the shaft. As the cam rotates it is the profile or shape of the cam that causes the follower to move in a specific way. The movement of the follower is then transferred to another mechanism or another part of the mechanism.


Actuators are devices that put the Linear motion system into automatic action. Actuators are used in a wide variety of applications, from industry machines producing products to computers starting up. Whichever type of actuator you need, there are several different types that can help you achieve putting things into motion. Shapes and styles distinguish actuators by use. There are three types of linear actuators, including basic, compact, and rodless cylinders. Both the basic and compact cylinders are best used when needed for a individual or dual action. Rodless cylinders are best used for long stroke applications in magnetic or mechanical systems. Another type of cylinder is the guided cylinder. This will provide a more stable precise movement that will eliminate bending.


Roller Slides, sometimes called crossed roller slides,are no motor linear slides that provide high precision linear movement for equipment powered by inertia or by hand. Roller slides are based on roller type bearings, which are frequently crossed to provide heavy load capabilities and more precise movement control. Roller Slides are mainly used in industries such as manufacturing, medical and telecommunications, and are versatile,with the ability to be adjusted to meet multiple applications which typically include clean room, vacuum environments, material handling and automated machinery. Roller slides work similar to ball bearing slides, except that the bearings are cylinder-shaped instead of ball shaped. The rollers cross each other at a 90 angle and move in between the four parallel rods that surround the rollers. The rollers are between "V" grooved bearing raceways, one being on the top and the other at the base. The travel ends when it meets the end cap. Typically, bases are constructed from aluminum and the rods and rollers are constructed from steel. Ball bearing slides are the most common type of linear slide. Ball bearing slides offer smooth precise movement along a guide rail, aided by ball bearings housed in the base,for increased reliability. Ball bearing slide applications normally include robotic assembly, cabinetry, high-end appliances and clean room settings, which primarily serve the manufacturing industry. For example, a widely used ball bearing slide in the furniture industry is a ball bearing drawer slide. Linear motion systems play an integral role in all of our lives and will continue to be important as we explore robotics and other technological advancement.

The Earth, the Sun, and the Stars

Our Solar System consists of the sun, planets, dwarf planets (plutoids), moons, an asteroid belt, comets, meteors and other objects. The Sun is the centre of our solar system and everything orbits around it.

The Earth is the third planet of our solar system- meaning it is the third from the Sun. Earth is the fifth largest of the eights planets in the Solar System, but the densest. It is the only astronomical body where life is known to exist.

The Earth's terrain varies from place to place. Roughly 71% is covered by water. The remaining 30% consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus and other geomorphologies.

The Earth provides lots of natural resources, which unfortunately humans have been exploiting for centuries. Some of these are non-renewable resources which are difficult to replace in a short amount of time. Humans have access to useful biological products that are produced by the Earth's biosphere. These products include, food, wood, oxygen and the recycling of many organic wastes. The ecosystem that exists on land is dependent on topsoil and water. And the ecosystem that exists below water depends on the Earth's dissolved nutrients.

The Sun is the star at the centre of the Solar System. It is approximately 149.6 million kilometres away from the Earth. It takes about 8 minutes and 19 seconds for light to travel from the Sun to Earth. Almost all life on Earth is supported by the energy of this sunlight. This is achieved via photosynthesis, which is the chemical process of converting carbon dioxide into organic compounds using energy from sunlight. The sun also controls the Earth's climate and weather patterns.

A star is a luminous ball of plasma held together by gravity. The Sun is a star and it is the star nearest to Earth. By observing the spectrum, luminosity and motion through space of a star, astronomers can determine its age, mass and chemical composition.

For creation and sustainability to take place all parts of our ecosystem must work together. Trees play their part by producing oxygen and reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They also help to moderate temperatures on Earth. Trees serve many additional purposes such as building material from their wood, fruits from their vines, and their aesthetics for landscaping purposes.

To date humans have exploited quite a lot of the planet's natural resources. It is of course normal that we would need and use some of them, but it is our responsibility to be as prudent as we can. We need to keep our world prosperous and beautiful.

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Applying The Right Chemistry To The Science Of Mind

"A science of mind is a goal which has engrossed thousands of generations of Man. Armies, dynasties and whole civilizations have perished for the lack of it. Rome went to dust for the want of it. China swims in blood for the need of it. And down in the arsenal is an atom bomb, its hopeful nose full-armed in ignorance of it."

-L. Ron Hubbard

The science of mind basically relates to the understanding on how your mind works, how it influences you and your behavior. This also affects how it influences you to behave and react to various situations in your daily life. Once you understand the concept, you need to work with the science to bring self improvement and personal development for yourself. You need to understand your brain chemistry, what it needs, how to relax it and how to respond to it and most of all, how to control it.

One of the most important needs of the mind is meditation. Meditation gives your mind a chance to relax and to clear itself from stress and clutter. Meditation helps you to find the center of your subconscious and allows you to learn to control your thoughts and how to keep yourself calm. This is the most important aspect of science of mind. That is, to learn to control the power of it and give it time for its own. It is an organ that has infinite power and it needs to be relaxed in order to perform. So meditation is one of the basic needs of your mind.

Keeping your mind stimulated is another science of mind that can help us excel in our lives. By stimulating our mind on a regular basis, using mind illusions in particular, we learn to question, doubt and we also learn that things should not be taken at face value. This gives our mind the ability to question and to think differently while enhancing its perceptiveness.

Mind control is another science that we need to learn about the mind. Since it is an organ of immense power, we need to harness its power. We can make use of our mind to control others and ourselves. We can utilize this mind power and control it in a way so that it helps us achieve our goals. We can control our mind and learn to think on our feet and react quickly. The science of our mind permits us to do this and much more.

Our mind is an amazing creation of God. Its power is infinite. Even though we use a fraction of our brain power, we are able to accomplish more than we can imagine in our daily lives. Using more of our brain would make us creatures of perfection and intelligence. The science of mind needs to be understood so that we can bring improvements in our lives and excel better at what we do and lead successful lives by achieving our goals. The mind has a science of its own which is waiting to be discovered and used.

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Salvaged Water: The Science of Wastewater Treatment

There are two different types of wastewater that are produced in the average household. These are greywater and blackwater. Greywater is made up of the water used to wash things in a home such as water from washing dishes, bathing and laundry. This water can be treated to be reused. Blackwater is the water that cannot be reused because it is too contaminated and is mostly wastewater from the toilet.

Environmental Impacts

Wastewater has been treated and reused for quite a long time in order to preserve the Earth's natural resources. The average home wastes a lot of water that can be reused. All it needs is to be purified through treatment and it will be completely safe to use again. Blackwater has to be separated from greywater because it can carry organisms that cause disease and is not considered safe to ever reuse. If blackwater is reintroduced to the environment, it can cause pollution and therefore must be removed entirely.

Greywater Treatment

If greywater is not treated very quickly, it may obtain anaerobic bacteria which is very dangerous and will cause the water to become useless. There are several different treatment systems that will purify greywater so that it can be used for various things such as washing clothes, watering plants, bathing and so on. Some treatment options are really only suitable for certain types of greywater, as well. For instance, a pre-treatment system that converts the anaerobic bacteria into aerobic bacteria is best for water that comes from washing dishes. Some of the other treatment options are soilboxes and gravity chambers. Water from washing laundry should be treated carefully if the detergents that were used contained bleach or if they were harsh detergents as they can be quite dangerous to plants. It is best to only use biodegradable and natural laundry soaps if this greywater is to be safely used for watering plants.

How Recycled Water Is Used

There are only specific areas in the United States that allow people to use recycled greywater. These areas have adopted the IPC or International Plumbing Code. The UPC, which stands for United Plumbing Code, does not permit the reuse of this type of water and some areas in the US follow this code. Greywater that comes from bathing or showering is used for toilet water in most of Australia and Europe. It is also used to irrigate crops and gardens when it is dispersed underground instead of sprayed directly onto the soil which is not considered safe in most cases. Treating greywater and reusing it can reduce the amount of water consumption by as much as 30% which is a large amount of waste that can be avoided.

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Material Science Behind 3D Printing

3D printing is a very fascinating technology in my opinion. This technology allows for the manufacturing of almost anything from a wide variety of materials. It is different from other forms of manufacturing, as it can use designs that are geometrically independent. The layer by layer process allows for the production of almost any shape! I plan on highlighting some of the materials offered through this process, but first I'm going to cover what 3D printing is.

3D printing is the layer by layer assembly of products through the melting or fusion of materials through various methods. These methods include curing liquid resins into*solids, laser melting, fused deposition modeling, and ink jet methods. For the process to work, a 3D design will have to be created on the computer by an artist or 3D engineer. This design will then be sent to a 3D printer, or the machine that will actually manufacture the product. Whichever 3D printer being used will take the 3D design, and the computer within the printer will acknowledge the dimensions, shapes, and thicknesses of each model. The manufacturing process will then take place when the "print button" is pressed. Once started, the process is entirely automated. The machine will begin creating a physical model based off of the design, one layer at a time. These layers are typically very small; most machines offer layers that range from 20-30 microns. The diameter of a human hair is around 20 microns. A 6 inch tall 3D print would likely consist of over 800 miniature layers! This layer by layer process can create very intricate and organic shapes that other manufacturing methods cannot; it is also relatively affordable. The variety of materials to print in is pretty significant as well. Let me elaborate.

When looking into 3D printing, the variety of material choices is very large. In fact, over 60 materials exist. These materials can cover a wide array of purposes, and each is different. Common materials include polycarbonates and ABS plastics. ABS is probably one of the most popular, and there are around 10 different colors to choose from. Precious metals even have a say in 3D printing; materials such as gold, sterling silver, fine silver, and platinum exist through 3D printing. Industrial plastics like PA 2200 exist to withstand various chemicals and high temperatures. There is also a large market for 3D printing metals out there; these metals include: aluminum, cobalt chrome, titanium, Inconel, two forms of stainless steel, bio chrome, bronze, maraging steel, and nickel alloy. Materials exist for very specific purposes, let me elaborate. Some materials within the Objet tango family are very flexible, and are used to prototype various products such as the rubber within cell phones. Vero materials can be used for "snap on" parts. There are a variety of wax materials that hold exceptional detail for wax casting. Other resins and materials are used to hold great detail for character models and similar applications. Some materials are fully translucent. Materials such as zp150 hold a full array of colors for character models.

Regardless of your prototyping needs, there is a material that exists for it! If you're looking to have a part made for the internals of a jet engine, 3D printing can save the day. If you need a precise character model, 3D printing will save the day. Whether you're making jewelry, or you're making a product, 3D printing will have a material that can get the job done when it finally comes down to prototyping!